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DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff asked 8 years ago

“Core Java” is Sun’s term, used to refer to Java SE, the standard edition and a set of related technologies, like the Java VM, CORBA, et cetera. This is mostly to differentiate from, say, Java ME or Java EE.

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Best Answer
DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff answered 8 years ago

What’s the difference between JPA and Hibernate?

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff replied 8 years ago

As you state JPA is just a specification, meaning there is no implementation. You can annotate your classes as much as you would like with JPA annotations, however without an implementation nothing will happen. Think of JPA as the guidelines that must be followed or an interface, while Hibernate’s JPA implementation is code that meets the API as defined by the JPA specification and provides the under the hood functionality.

When you use Hibernate with JPA you are actually using the Hibernate JPA implementation. The benefit of this is that you can swap out Hibernate’s implementation of JPA for another implementation of the JPA specification. When you use straight Hibernate you are locking into the implementation because other ORMs may use different methods/configurations and annotations, therefore you cannot just switch over to another ORM.

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff replied 8 years ago

JPA itself has features that will make up for a standard ORM framework. Since JPA is a part of Java EE spec, you can use JPA alone in a project and it should work with any Java EE compatible Servers. Yes, these servers will have the implementations for the JPA spec.

Hibernate is the most popular ORM framework, once the JPA got introduced hibernate conforms to the JPA specifications. Apart from the basic set of specification that it should follow hibernate provides whole lot of additional stuff.

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff answered 8 years ago

What’s the difference between getPath(), getAbsolutePath(), and getCanonicalPath() in Java?

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff replied 8 years ago

The best way I have found to get a feel for things like this is to try them out:

import java.io.File;
public class PathTesting {
public static void main(String [] args) {
File f = new File(“test/.././file.txt”);
System.out.println(f.getPath());
System.out.println(f.getAbsolutePath());
try {
System.out.println(f.getCanonicalPath());
}
catch(Exception e) {}
}
}

Your output will be something like:

test\..\.\file.txt
C:\projects\sandbox\trunk\test\..\.\file.txt
C:\projects\sandbox\trunk\file.txt

So, getPath() gives you the path based on the File object, which may or may not be relative; getAbsolutePath() gives you an absolute path to the file; and getCanonicalPath() gives you the unique absolute path to the file. Notice that there are a huge number of absolute paths that point to the same file, but only one canonical path.

When to use each? Depends on what you’re trying to accomplish, but if you were trying to see if two Files are pointing at the same file on disk, you could compare their canonical paths. Just one example.

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff replied 8 years ago

In short:

getPath() gets the path string that the File object was constructed with, and it may be relative current directory.
getAbsolutePath() gets the path string after resolving it against the current directory if it’s relative, resulting in a fully qualified path.
getCanonicalPath() gets the path string after resolving any relative path against current directory, and removes any relative pathing (. and ..), and any file system links to return a path which the file system considers the canonical means to reference the file system object to which it points.

Also, each of these has a File equivalent which returns the corresponding File object.

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff answered 8 years ago

Differences between HashMap and Hashtable?

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff replied 8 years ago

There are several differences between HashMap and Hashtable in Java:

Hashtable is synchronized, whereas HashMap is not. This makes HashMap better for non-threaded applications, as unsynchronized Objects typically perform better than synchronized ones.

Hashtable does not allow null keys or values. HashMap allows one null key and any number of null values.

One of HashMap’s subclasses is LinkedHashMap, so in the event that you’d want predictable iteration order (which is insertion order by default), you could easily swap out the HashMap for a LinkedHashMap. This wouldn’t be as easy if you were using Hashtable.

Since synchronization is not an issue for you, I’d recommend HashMap. If synchronization becomes an issue, you may also look at ConcurrentHashMap.

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff replied 8 years ago

This question is often asked in interview to check whether candidate understands correct usage of collection classes and is aware of alternative solutions available.

The HashMap class is roughly equivalent to Hashtable, except that it is non synchronized and permits nulls. (HashMap allows null values as key and value whereas Hashtable doesn’t allow nulls).
HashMap does not guarantee that the order of the map will remain constant over time.
HashMap is non synchronized whereas Hashtable is synchronized.
Iterator in the HashMap is fail-safe while the enumerator for the Hashtable is not and throw ConcurrentModificationException if any other Thread modifies the map structurally by adding or removing any element except Iterator’s own remove() method. But this is not a guaranteed behavior and will be done by JVM on best effort.

Note on Some Important Terms

Synchronized means only one thread can modify a hash table at one point of time. Basically, it means that any thread before performing an update on a hashtable will have to acquire a lock on the object while others will wait for lock to be released.
Fail-safe is relevant from the context of iterators. If an iterator has been created on a collection object and some other thread tries to modify the collection object “structurally”, a concurrent modification exception will be thrown. It is possible for other threads though to invoke “set” method since it doesn’t modify the collection “structurally”. However, if prior to calling “set”, the collection has been modified structurally, “IllegalArgumentException” will be thrown.
Structurally modification means deleting or inserting element which could effectively change the structure of map.

HashMap can be synchronized by

Map m = Collections.synchronizeMap(hashMap);

Map provides Collection views instead of direct support for iteration via Enumeration objects. Collection views greatly enhance the expressiveness of the interface, as discussed later in this section. Map allows you to iterate over keys, values, or key-value pairs; Hashtable does not provide the third option. Map provides a safe way to remove entries in the midst of iteration; Hashtable did not. Finally, Map fixes a minor deficiency in the Hashtable interface. Hashtable has a method called contains, which returns true if the Hashtable contains a given value. Given its name, you’d expect this method to return true if the Hashtable contained a given key, because the key is the primary access mechanism for a Hashtable. The Map interface eliminates this source of confusion by renaming the method containsValue. Also, this improves the interface’s consistency — containsValue parallels containsKey.

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff answered 8 years ago

What does ‘synchronized’ mean?

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff replied 8 years ago

The synchronized keyword is all about different threads reading and writing to the same variables, objects and resources. This is not a trivial topic in Java, but here is a quote from Sun:

Synchronized methods enable a simple strategy for preventing thread interference and memory consistency errors: if an object is visible to more than one thread, all reads or writes to that object’s variables are done through synchronized methods.

In a very, very small nutshell: When you have two threads that are reading and writing to the same ‘resource’, say a variable named foo, you need to ensure that these threads access the variable in an atomic way. Without the synchronized keyword, your thread 1 may not see the change thread 2 made to foo, or worse, it may only be half changed. This would not be what you logically expect.

Again, this is a non-trivial topic in Java. To learn more, explore topics here on SO and the Interwebs about:

Concurrency
Java Memory Model

Keep exploring these topics until the name “Brian Goetz” becomes permanently associated with the term “concurrency” in your brain.

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff answered 8 years ago

What does it mean when we say an ArrayList is not synchronized?

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff replied 8 years ago

1
down vote

It means that instances of ArrayList are not guaranteed to be threadsafe. This usually includes both read and write access. If you do it without external synchronization you can leave the object in stange states and get some hard to debug behavior.

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff replied 8 years ago

ArrayList al=new ArrayList();

Collections.synchronized(al);

DHARMEDRA SAHU Staff replied 8 years ago

The more general approach to initializing is to use the Arrays class.

import java.util.Arrays;

byte[] bytes = new byte[100];
Arrays.fill( bytes, (byte) 0 );